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Although the first person to propose a worldwide system of time zones was the Italian mathematician Quirico Filopanti in his book Miranda!

published in 1858, his idea was unknown outside the pages of his book until long after his death, so it did not influence the adoption of time zones during the 19th century.

The zones were named Intercolonial, Eastern, Central, Mountain, and Pacific.

Within a year 85% of all cities with populations over 10,000, about 200 cities, were using standard time.

He proposed 24 hourly time zones, which he called "longitudinal days", the first centred on the meridian of Rome.

He also proposed a universal time to be used in astronomy and telegraphy.

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) was established in 1675, when the Royal Observatory was built, as an aid to mariners to determine longitude at sea, providing a standard reference time while each city in England kept a different local time.

Local solar time became increasingly inconvenient as rail transport and telecommunications improved, because clocks differed between places by amounts corresponding to the differences in their geographical longitudes, which varied by four minutes of time for every degree of longitude.

When well-regulated mechanical clocks became widespread in the early 19th century, each city began to use some local mean solar time.Dowd's system was never accepted by American railroads. Allen, the editor of the Traveler's Official Railway Guide.The borders of its time zones ran through railroad stations, often in major cities.Many land time zones are skewed toward the west of the corresponding nautical time zones.This also creates a permanent daylight saving time effect.

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